In the wider Caribbean region, only less than 10% of domestic waste-water from the wider public is treated in any centralized treatment plant. This situation is due to the lack of country’s regulations that require the control of waste-water. Businesses and academic institutions account for the 10% of waste-water treated.
These institutions are driven by competitiveness in their business sector. However, the level of operations and maintenance to ensure a required quality effluent at these decentralized plants is questionable as there are seldom regulatory monitoring systems for effluent and penalties are inexistent.